Burkholderia cepacia AMMD

Scanning electron micrograph of Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD colonizing the rhizosphere of pea (K. Heungens and J. Parke).

Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD [LMG 19182] is a rhizosphere organism effective in stimulating plant growth and suppressing soilborne plant pathogenic Pythium spp. and Aphanomyces euteiches. Its relevance to DOE is carbon sequestration.

Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD is the type strain for B. ambifaria, a species in the Burkholderia cepacia complex that includes soil saprophytes, plant commensals and human clinical isolates (Coenye et al., 2001). Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD was isolated by J. Parke in 1985 from the rhizosphere of pea ( Pisum sativum L.) near Arlington, Wisconsin, USA.   When applied to pea or maize seeds, it colonizes the seed and root system. It suppresses seed rot and damping-off by plant pathogenic Pythium spp., and increases the yield of peas grown in soil infested with Aphanomyces euteiches (Bowers and Parke 1993; Heungens and Parke 2000, 2001; King and Parke 1993, 1996; Parke 1990; Parke et al 1991). Its use as an augmentative biological control agent was patented but never commercialized because of concerns about risks to human health (Parke and Gurian-Sherman, 2001).


Bowers, J. H. and Parke, J. L.   1993. Epidemiology of Pythium damping-off and Aphanomyces root rot of peas after seed treatment with bacterial agents for biological control.   Phytopathology 83:1466-1473.

Coenye T, Mahenthiralingam E, Henry D, LiPuma JJ, Laevens S, Gillis M, Speert DP, Vandamme P. 2001. Burkholderia ambifaria sp. nov., a novel member of the Burkholderia cepacia complex including biocontrol and cystic fibrosis-related isolates, Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51: 1481-1490.

Heungens, K. K. and Parke, J. L.   2000.   Zoospore homing and infection events: effects of the biocontrol bacterium Burkholderia cepacia AMMDR1 on two oomycete pathogens of pea.   Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:5192-5200.

Heungens, K. K. and Parke, J. L.   2001.   Postinfection biological control of oomycete pathogens of pea by Burkholderia cepacia AMMDR1.     Phytopathology 91:383-391.

King, E. B. and Parke, J. L.   1993.   Biocontrol of Aphanomyces root rot and Pythium damping-off by Pseudomonas cepacia strain AMMD on four pea cultivars.   Plant Dis. 77:1185-1188.

King, E. B. and Parke, J. L.   1996.   Population density of the biocontrol agent Burkholderia cepacia AMMMDR1 on four pea cultivars.   Soil Biol. Biochem.   28:307-312.

Parke, J. L.   1990.   Population dynamics of Pseudomonas cepacia in the pea rhizosphere in relation to biocontrol of Pythium .   Phytopathology 80:1307-1311.

Parke, J. L. and Gurian-Sherman, D.   2001. Diversity of the Burkholderia cepacia complex and implications for risk assessment of biological control strains.   Annu. Rev. Phytopathology 39:225-258 .

Parke, J. L., Rand, R. E., Joy, A. E., and King, E. B.   1991.   Biological control of Aphanomyces root rot and Pythium damping-off of peas by application of Pseudomonas cepacia or Pseudomonas fluorescens applied to seed.   Plant Dis. 75:987-992.