Homo sapiens, Chromosome 19 (Build 34)
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This version represents the resultant gene catalog aligned to the NCBI July 2003 build 34 of chromosome 19.

The tiling path consists of 860 clones that span the entire euchromatin regions of both the p and q arms. The path consists of 511 chromosome 19-specific cosmids, 333 bacterial artificial chromosomes, 11 fosmids, 3 P1 derived artificial chromosomes, 1 YAC clone and 1 genomic PCR product. The chromosome is represented in four contigs, one of which covers the entire q arm and the clone map is estimated to cover 99.9% of the euchromatin sequence.

Sequence was generated using a clone-by-clone shotgun sequencing strategy followed by finishing using a custom primer approach. Recalcitrant areas or hard gaps were closed with additional sequence data derived from transposon sequencing, small insert shatter libraries or PCR.
On the basis of internal and external quality checks, we estimate the accuracy of our finished sequence to exceed 99.99%13. In total, we finished 55,785,651 base pairs and estimate the total size of the chromosome, including the two clone gaps and the recalcitrant centromeric and subtelomeric regions, to be 63.8 Mb.


Jane Grimwood1, Laurie A. Gordon2,3, Astrid Terry2, Anne Olsen2,3, Jeremy Schmutz1, Uffe Hellsten2, David Goodstein2, Olivier Couronne2, Mary Tran-Gyamfi2,3, Andrea Aerts2 Michael Altherr2,4, Eva Bajorek1, Stacey Black1, Sean Caenepeel2, Chenier Caoile1, Yee Man Chan1, Mari Christensen2,3, Cathy A Cleland2,4, Alex Copeland2, Eileen Dalin2, Paramvir Dehal2, Mirian Denys1, John C. Detter2, Julio Escobar1, Dave Flowers1, Dea Fotopulos1, Carmen Garcia1, Tijana Glavina2, Maria Gomez1, Eidelyn Gonzales1, Nancy Hammon2, Lauren Haydu1, Issac Ho2, Wayne Huang2, Sanjay Israni2, Jamie Jett2, Kristen Kadner2, Heather Kimball2, Arthur Kobayashi2,3, Frederick Lopez1, Yunian Lou2, Steve Lowry2, Diego Martinez2, Catherine Medina1, Jenna Morgan2, Kathryn Nelson2,4, Matt Nolan2, Ivan Ovcharenko2,3, Sam Pitluck2, Martin Pollard2, Anthony P. Popkie8, Lucia Ramirez1, Sam Rash2, James Retterer1, Alex Rodriguez1, Stephanine Rogers1, Asaf Salamov2, Angelica Salazar1, Xinwei She8, Doug Smith2, Victor Solovyev2, Nina Thayer2,4, Hope Tice2, Ming Tsai1, Anna Ustaszewska2, Nu Vo1, Mark Wagner2,3, Jeremy Wheeler1, Kevin Wu1, Gary Xie2,4, Joan Yang1, Inna Dubchak2, Terrence S. Furey5, Pieter DeJong6, Mark Dickson1, David Gordon7, Evan E. Eichler2,8, Len A. Pennacchio2, Paul Richardson2, Lisa Stubbs2,3, Elbert Branscomb2,3, Daniel S. Rokhsar2, Richard M. Myers1, Edward M. Rubin2, Susan M. Lucas2

  1. Stanford Human Genome Center, 975 California Ave, Palo Alto, CA 94304
  2. DOE’s Joint Genome Institute, 2800 Mitchell Ave, Walnut Creek, CA 94598
  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550
  4. Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545
  5. Center for Biomolecular Science and Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064
  6. Children’s Hospital Oakland, Oakland, CA 94609
  7. Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195
  8. Department of Genetics, Center for Computational Genomics and Center for Human Genetics, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, OH 44106
The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, Terry A, Schmutz J, Lamerdin J, Hellsten U, Goodstein D, Couronne O, Tran-Gyamfi M, Aerts A, Altherr M, Ashworth L, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caenepeel S, Carrano A, Caoile C, Chan YM, Christensen M, Cleland CA, Copeland A, Dalin E, Dehal P, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Garcia C, Georgescu AM, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Ho I, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Larionov V, Leem SH, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Malfatti S, Martinez D, McCready P, Medina C, Morgan J, Nelson K, Nolan M, Ovcharenko I, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Popkie AP, Predki P, Quan G, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, She X, Smith D, Slezak T, Solovyev V, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wagner M, Wheeler J, Wu K, Xie G, Yang J, Dubchak I, Furey TS, DeJong P, Dickson M, Gordon D, Eichler EE, Pennacchio LA, Richardson P, Stubbs L, Rokhsar DS, Myers RM, Rubin EM, Lucas SM. Nature 428, 529-535 (1 April 2004) [doi:10.1038/nature02399]
This work was performed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy's Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research Program and the by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC03-76SF00098 and Los Alamos National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-ENG-36.