Wickerhamomyces anomalus NRRL Y-366-8 v1.0
Dothistroma photo
Photo credit: Clete Kurtzman

Wickerhamomyces anomalus, also known as Pichia anomala and Hansenula anomala, is frequently associated with spoilage or processing of food and grain products. Its capacity for growth on a wide range of carbon sources at low pH under high osmotic pressure and with little or no oxygen enables it to propagate in a wide range of environments (4). It is a non-Saccharomyces wine yeast that contributes to wine aroma through the production of volatile compounds. In recent years it has been used as a biocontrol agent against other fungi due to its ability to produce mycocin killer toxins (3, 9). It has been studied for its cyanide-resistant alternative oxidase activity (1, 2), and it possesses an active beta-glucosidase that plays a role in wine fermentations (5-8). The haploid chromosome of H. anomala has been reported to be seven to nine, with sizes ranging from 850 to 3500 kb in different strains (3).

Genome Reference(s)

  1. Minagawa, N., S. Sakajo, T. Komiyama, and A. Yoshimoto. 1990. Essential role of ferrous iron in cyanide-resistant respiration in Hansenula anomala. FEBS Letters 267:114-116.
  2. Minagawa, N., and A. Yoshimoto. 1987. The induction of cyanide-resistant respiration in Hansenula anomala. Journal of Biochemistry 101:1141-1146.
  3. Naumov, G. I., E. S. Naumova, and J. Schnurer. 2001. Genetic characterization of the nonconventional yeast Hansenula anomala. Research in Microbiology 152:551-562.
  4. Passoth, V., E. Fredlund, U. A. Druvefors, and J. Schnurer. 2006. Biotechnology, physiology and genetics of the yeast Pichia anomala. FEMS Yeast Research 6:3-13.
  5. Quatrini, P., S. Marineo, A. M. Puglia, C. Restuccia, C. Caggia, C. L. Randazzo, G. Spagna, R. N. Barbagallo, R. Palmeri, and P. Giudici. 2008. Partial sequencing of the beta-glucosidase-encoding gene of yeast strains isolated from musts and wines. Annals of Microbiology 58:503-508.
  6. Rosi, I., M. Vinella, and P. Domizio. 1994. Characterization of beta-glucosidase activity in yeasts of enological origin. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 77:519-527.
  7. Spagna, G., R. N. Barbagallo, R. Palmeri, C. Restuccia, and P. Giudici. 2002. Properties of endogenous beta-glucosidase of a Pichia anomala strain isolated from Sicilian musts and wines. Enzyme and Microbial Technology 31:1036-1041.
  8. Swangkeaw, J., S. Vichitphan, C. E. Butzke, and K. Vichitphan. 2009. The characterisation of a novel Pichia anomala beta-glucosidase with potentially aroma-enhancing capabilities in wine. Annals of Microbiology 59:335-343.
  9. Wang, X. D., G. Q. Li, D. H. Jiang, and H. C. Huang. 2009. Screening of plant epiphytic yeasts for biocontrol of bacterial fruit blotch (Acidovorax avenae subsp citrulli) of hami melon. Biological Control 50:164-171.