Lactifluus subvellereus BPL653 v1.0
Lactifluus subvellereus
Lactifluus subvellereus (actual genome source) by Brian P. Looney

This genome was sequenced as part of the JGI CSP "1KFG - Deep Sequencing of Ecologically-relevant Dikarya" and more specifically as a part of the Russulaceae Sequencing Project, which seeks to densely sample members of a diverse lineage of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi to examine functional diversity of ECM fungi with a shared evolutionary history.

Lactifluus subvellereus (Peck) Nuytinck - The Fleecy-like Milk Cap

Lactifluus subvellereus is a common eastern North American species, with a white, velvety cap that develops yellowish stains with age, strongly inrolled margin, closely spaced gills with many furcations, cope, producing copious yellow latex that is strongly acrid tasting, and having very low spore ornamentation (Hesler & Smith 1979). A variety of this species, Lactarius subvellereus var. subdistans Hesler & A.H. Sm. is similar but has more widely spaced gills and is more frequently found in northern states such as Maine and Minnesota, whereas L. subvellereus var. subvellereus was described from Alabama (Hesler & Smith 1979). In a recent reclassification of the genus Lactifluus, De Crop et al. (2017) places L. subvellereus in Lactifluus section Albati of L. subgenus Lactariopsis to which this specimen most closely matches. This subgenus contains all known milk cap species possessing a secondary velum or veil. L. sect. Albati contains six known species and can be distinguished by a lamprotrichoderm pileipellis structure, non-emergent pseudocystidia, and the presence of macrocystidia (Heilmann-Clausen et al. 1998; Verbeken 1998). Lactifluus subvellereus from Korea, likely a closely related species, has been scrutinized for its use as traditional medicine in China to treat cancer and other ailments, which has lead to the discovery of many novel sesquiterpenoid compounds (Jing & Xiao 1997; Kim et al. 2010). The sporocarps for this genome were collected on June 27, 2015 in a mixed forest with mainly Tsuga canadensis, Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifer, and multiple species of Quercus and Carya in the Greenbrier area of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. This species is a representative of an important and well-studied group of species representing a novel subgenus of Lactifluus and will be important for understanding the evolution of functional diversity of Russulaceae.

Researchers who wish to publish analyses using data from unpublished CSP genomes are respectfully required to contact the PI and JGI to avoid potential conflicts on data use and coordinate other publications with the CSP master paper(s).


De Crop, E., Nuytinck, J., Van de Putte, K., Wisitrassameewong, K., Hackel, J., Stubbe, D., Hyde, K.D., Roy, M., Halling, R.E., Moreau, P.A. and Eberhardt, U., 2017. A multi-gene phylogeny of Lactifluus (Basidiomycota, Russulales) translated into a new infrageneric classification of the genus. Persoonia, 38, pp.58-80.

Heilmann-Clausen, J., Verbeken, A. and Vesterholt, J., 1998. The genus Lactarius (Vol. 2). Danish Mycological Society.

Hesler, L.R. and Smith, A.H., 1979. North American species of Lactarius. University of Michigan Press. Ann Arbor.

Jing, Z. and Xiao, Z.F., 1997. Sesquiterpene hydroxylactone from Lactarius subvellereus. Phytochemistry, 46(1), pp.157-159.

Kim, K.H., Noh, H.J., Choi, S.U., Park, K.M., Seok, S.J. and Lee, K.R., 2010. Lactarane sesquiterpenoids from Lactarius subvellereus and their cytotoxicity. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 20(18), pp.5385-5388.

Verbeken, A., 1998. Studies in tropical African Lactarius species, 6: a synopsis of the subgenus Lactariopsis (Henn.) R. Heim emend. Mycotaxon,66, pp.387-418.