Clonostachys rosea CBS125111 v1.0
Asexual state of Clonostachys rosea showing a conidiophore with whirled phialdes and conidia (Rossman et al. 1999).
Asexual state of Clonostachys rosea showing a conidiophore with whirled phialdes and conidia (Rossman et al. 1999).

Chionosphaera apobasidialis was sequenced as part of the 1000 Fungal Genomes Project.

Clonostachys rosea (Link) Schroers et al. (Hypocreales, Bionectriaceae) is a filamentous fungus isolated from numerous habitats including various soil types and decaying plant material (Schroers 2001). It is also known as an aggressive parasite of other fungi (mycoparasitism) and has potential as a biocontrol agent of plant pathogenic fungi. It has been rarely isolated from dead insects and associated with living nematodes and slime molds. The sexual state comprises small globose to subglobose perithecia that produce narrowly clavate asci (meiosporangia) with ellipsoidal ascospores (meiospores). The asexual state produces specialized cells (phialides) that are arranged in whirls and that give rise to asexual propagules called conidia (mitospores). The sexual state is primarily known from tropical regions of the World, while the asexual state appears to have a broader distribution with numerous isolations from temperate environments. C. rosea is a member of Bionectriaceae of the order Hypocreales (Rossman et al. 1999). Hypocreales is one of the largest orders of filamentous ascomycetes and exhibits a broad range of ecologies ranging from plant associated nutritional modes (e.g., plant pathogens, endophytes, plant decomposers) to animal pathogens (e.g., insect pathogens) and mycoparasites (Spatafora et al. 2007). This fungus was sequenced as part of the 1000 Fungal Genome Project with an emphasis on understanding the phylogenetic relationships with the fungal order Hypocreales and the evolution of fungal ecologies and fungal metabolism.